Demography: a bit over 6 million
Multidimensional Poverty Index (%): 0,002 (per the Oxford Poverty and Human Dev’t Initiative (OPHD) country briefing Dec;2016)
Gender Equality Index: 67th out of 146 countries
HDI Rank: 120th out of 188 countries
GDP per capita (US$):$3,500 (2016 est.)
The Kyrgyz Republic is a mountainous and landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China. It has a population of around 6 million and an area of 199,949 km2.The economic foundation of the Kyrgyz Republic relies mainly on the agricultural, mining and energy sectors. Kyrgyzstan ranks 120 out of 188 on the Human Development Index (HDI 2015). Agriculture accounts for about 40% of total employment (70% of the poor) and over one-third of GDP. However, more than 40% of agricultural land is degraded and over 85% of land is exposed to erosion, posing serious threats to food security and agricultural production. Key poverty-environment issues include land degradation and desertification; threats to food security and agricultural production; natural hazards. Climate change is expected to impact on environment, health, water supply, in turn adversely impacting irrigated agriculture and hydroelectric power supply, contributing to increased levels of poverty and vulnerability of (especially) the rural population. Poverty-environment issues have explicit gender dimension as rural women are more disadvantaged because of their limited access to natural and economic resources, decision making in private and public life, labour market, information and technologies. Due to traditional stereotypes, even as heads of households, they are less likely to own land and property, livestock and agricultural machinery .While women constitute the majority of labour force in agriculture, their contributions to economy and household activities are not accounted for and valued. Women represent only 6% of members of pasture management committees, 18% of Water Users Associations, 13,6% of local councils and 4,65% heads of LSGs. Women and girls tend to be less actively involved in decisions concerning natural resource management, climate change adaptation and mitigation practices and policy development and implementation.
To enhance implementation of development policies, plans and budgets that combine environmental sustainability and poverty eradication to contribute to the achievement of SDGs.
In response to identified challenges, PEI focuses efforts in three key areas with capacity building as a crosscutting objective:
- P-E approaches and tools for integrated development policies, plans and coordination mechanisms applied
- National knowledge base is strengthened on cross-sectoral budget and expenditure frameworks, coordination mechanisms, and environment-economic accounting systems
- Sustainable development methodological framework endorsed by Ministry of Economy as main planning guideline and applied to integrate national pro-poor environmental sustainability objectives into the National Sustainable Development Strategy (2013-2017), the Government’s Programme for Transition to Sustainable Development (2013-2017), and four provincial development plans.
- South-south collaboration with Czech Republic: System of Economic-Environmental Accounting roadmap developed. Initial pilot work on economic valuation of forest ecosystems.
- Partnership with UN Women increased knowledge and understanding of the linkages between gender, women’s empowerment, and environmental sustainability to reduce inequality, drawing from key findings of the joint research on Gender, Poverty, Environment and Biodiversity.
- Official adoption of the green growth indicators as part of the national system of sustainable development indicators.
- Developed the first Poverty and Social Impact Assessment on pasture management in the country.
- Inter-ministerial coordination mechanism at national level led by Minister of Economy upgraded to an SDG Coordination Committee under the Prime Minister.
- Use PEI supported research and experience for the integration of pro-poor environmental sustainability objectives in the upcoming 2018-2023 National Development Plan and in the 2030 long term development strategy.
- Complete Public and Private Environmental Expenditure Review (PEER) on biodiversity and climate change in partnership with the UNDP Biodiversity Financing Initiative (Biofin) to identify gaps in public and private financial flows related to environment and natural resources.
- Support capacity building of the Ministry of Economy and other relevant actors in the monitoring of green growth indicators.
- (and partly 1) Continue the partnership with Germany’s GIZ to introduce ecosystem-based development planning approaches using valuation of ecosystem services and a System of Economic-Environmental Accounting-Experimental Ecosystems Accounting (SEEA-EEA) through pilot work in the forestry sector.
- Identify poverty-environment mainstreaming champions among political and civil society leaders to widen and sustain the base for national ownership and sustainability.
- PEI’s work with the Ministry of Economy facilitated by direct leadership and involvement of the Minister, as a PEI champion, has significantly contributed to the initiation, development and adoption of the two key strategic documents of country’s development –National Strategy for Sustainable Development 2013-2017 and Government’s Programme for Transition to Sustainable Development 2013-2017 (PTSD).
- The project supports the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic in the strengthening capacity of its Department of Strategic Planning and key ministries and agencies at the national and regional levels in strategic planning for sustainable development. The analysis and evaluation of the results of research on the long-term priorities of sustainable development for 2013-2013 carried out. Recommendations for their use in the framework of the adaptation of Global Sustainable Development Goals developed as well as the long-term priorities of sustainable development of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2030.
- Methodology of sustainable development strategic planning at national and regional levels developed and approved.
- Expert support to finalize the Batken and Jalal-Abad regions Development Programs, taking into account issues of sustainable development provided.
- Activities on sustainable pasture management and introduction of the “One Village – One Product” model the “Green Village” are being implemented in Naryn, Osh and Batken oblasts jointly with the UNDP Area Based Development Offices of Naryn, Osh and Batken oblasts.
- Assess the impact of the management of pastures on poverty and social issues. The result will be worked out strong, sound and stable financial advice to the government, give direction to the further spread of these practices in other regions of the country.
- Impact assessment of the pastures management on poverty and social issues conducted. As a result, sound and financially stable recommendations with further distribution of these practices in other regions of the country worked out.
- Jointly with the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic work for the implementation of environmental-economic accounting carried out. This activity was co-financed by the Czech Trust Fund. An experience in the development and application of environmental-economic accounting and experimental ecosystem accounting reviewed, the capacity for their implementation in Kyrgyzstan analyzed and methodological recommendations developed in close consultation with the NSC, SAEPF, Ministry of Economy, GTZ and CAREC. Based on the recommendations of the study, the project carries out preparatory work to improve the capacity of the NSC and the key stakeholders, piloting an experimental environmental accounting in the Kyrgyz Republic.
- Assessment of ecosystem services conducted jointly with together with the State Agency for Environment Protection and Forestry under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic.
- An interagency working group under the SAEPF established with the aim to facilitate the work of environmental-economic accounting for coordination activity on the assessment of key ecosystem services and to develop a methodological basis for valuation of biodiversity. The activity conducted in accordance with the National Sustainable Development Strategy till 2017, the Programme of the Government on Transition to Sustainable Development for 2014-2017, the Action Plan for the Conservation of Biological Biodiversity of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2014-2020.
- The Initiative supports local educational institutions in mainstreaming gender-specific activities, including research on gender aspects of poverty, biodiversity, climate change links, and in developing a training courses, academic competition, communications products. This activity is carried out in collaboration with the UNDP-GEF “Improving coverage and management effectiveness of protected areas in the mountains of Central Tien Shan” Project and the United Nations Women.
- The Initiative supports the Naryn State University in organizing an experience exchange with relevant educational institutions in the field of sustainable pasture management in Naryn oblast.